Acupuncture related pain modulation
In a study by Theysohn, Germany, 2014, volunteers showed a modulated pain experience under pain conditions in various areas of the brain such as cingulate gyrus, insula, primary somatosensory cortex and prefrontal cortex. The study supports the analgesic effects of acupuncture outlast the needling period. Voulnteers were placed in a functional MRI scanner. Scans were compared before and after acupuncture. The study revealed that areas that were active prior to acupunture were dampened post acupuncture. This suggests that needles change the way we process and perceive pain.